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Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe)

Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe)
Detailed information about the country: Zimbabwe. Photos, maps, population, cities, economy, climate, statistics collected by the CIA USA / World factbook.
The United Kingdom annexed South Rhodesia from the monopoly Company of South Africa in 1923. The Constitution of 1961 was specially drawn up in such a way as to preserve the power of the Whites. In 1965, the government unilaterally declared independence of the country, but Britain did not recognize this act as valid and demanded a suffrage for the black African majority of the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and partisan insurrection eventually forced the government in 1979 to hold free elections; in 1980 the country gained its independence and changed its name to Zimbabwe. Robert Mugabe, the first black prime minister of the country, has since remained its permanent head (he became president in 1987). His campaign of redistribution of land, which began in 2000, led to a decline in the economy and caused a general shortage of essential goods. Ignoring international condemnation, Mugabe rigged the 2002 elections to secure his re-election. The ruling party used fraud and intimidation to get 2/3 of the votes in the parliamentary elections in March 2005, which allowed Mugabe to amend the constitution at will and recreate the Senate, which was abolished in late 1980. President Mugabe in June 2007 introduced control of prices for all major goods, causing panic, which led to empty store shelves for several months. The general elections in March 2008 allowed the opposition, even with irregularities, to take the majority of seats in parliament. The opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai won in the presidential election in the first round. On the eve of the second round of elections in late June 2008, significant violence and threats against members of opposition parties led Tsvangirai to refuse to vote. Negotiations on the division of power in which MUGBE would remain president and Tsvangirai became prime minister were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders have not yet been able to agree on many key issues.
South Africa, between the Republic of South Africa and Zambia.
20 � 00'S, 30 � 00'E.
total area: 390,580 square meters. km.
land: 386,670 sq. m. km.
water: 3,910 square meters. km.
little more than Montana.
Total: 3,066 km.
borders with countries: Botswana - 813 km, Mozambique - 1 231 km, South Africa - 225 km, Zambia - 797 km.
0 km (landlocked)
no (it does not have access to the sea)
tropical; varies with altitude above sea level; rainy season from November to March.
mainly a high plateau with an even higher plateau (high mountain veld) in the central region.
the lowest point: the confluence of the rivers Runde and Sava 162 m;
the highest point: Mount Inangang 2 592 m.
coal, chrome ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals.
arable land: 8.24%
in t.ch. for cereals: 0.33%
other: 91.43% (2005)
1 740 square meters. km (2003)
20 cu. km (1987)
total quantity: 4.21 cubic km. for the year (14% / 7% / 79%)
per capita: 324 cubic meters per year (2002)
regular droughts; rare floods and severe storms.
deforestation; erosion and degradation of soils; air and water pollution; poaching, significantly reduced the population of black rhinoceroses - once the largest in the world.
Agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed but not ratified: none.
has no access to the sea; The Zambezi River forms a natural border with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) Victoria Falls - the largest in terms of the area of falling water.
11 651 858.
Note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS (July 2010)
0-14 years: 43.9% (males 2 523 119 / females 2 473 928)
15-64 years: 52.2% (males 2 666 928 / females 3 283 474)
over 65 years of age: 3.9% (men 194 360 / women 250 820) (2010)
average: 17.8 years.
women: 18.9 years (2010)
2.954% (2010)
31.57 births per 1,000 people (2010)
17.29 deaths per 1,000 people (2008)
12.87 migrants per 1,000 people.
note: there is a growing flow of migrants from Zimbabwe to South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2009)
at birth: 1.03 men / women.
up to 15 years: 1.02 men / women.
15-64 years: 0.83 men / women.
over 65 years of age: 0.75 men / women.
total population: 0.91 men / women (2010)
total: 33.86 deaths per 1,000 infants.
boys: 36.5 deaths per 1,000 infants.
girls: 31.14 deaths per 1,000 infants (2008)
average: 44.28 years.
men: 45.08 years.
female: 43.46 years (2008)
3.66 births per woman (2010)
1,300,000 (2007)
140 000 (2007)
degree of risk: high.
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever.
vector-borne diseases: malaria.
water contact disease: schistosomiasis.
animal contact disease: hydrophobia (2008)
noun: a resident of Zimbabwe;
Africans - 98% (Shona - 71%, Ndebele - 16%, others - 11%), whites - 1%, Mestizo and Asians - 1%
syncretists (holding a mixture of Christian and local religious views) - 50%, Christians - 25%, adherents of local beliefs - 24%, Muslims and others - 1%
English (official), Shona, Syndebele (Ndebele language, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous less common tribal dialects.
definition: persons 15 years and older, able to read and write in English.
total population: 90.7%
female: 87.2% (2003)
average: 9 years.
women: 9 years old (2003)
4.6% of GDP (2000)
usual full form: Republic of Zimbabwe.
usual short form: Zimbabwe.
old form: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia.
parliamentary democracy.
title: Harare.
geographic coordinates: 17,50 S, 31 03'E.
time difference: time for the Grindwich +2.
8 provinces (Manicaland, Masvingo, Matabeleland South, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland-Santrl, Midlands) and 2 cities with provincial status, Bulawayo, Harare.
since April 18, 1980 (from Great Britain)
Independence Day, April 18 (since 1980)
adopted on December 21, 1979.
a mixture of Romano-Germanic and English common law; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
18 years; the universal.
head of state: President Robert Mugabe (since December 31, 1987); Vice-President Joyce Mujuru (since December 6, 2004);
head of government: Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai (since February 11, 2009);
Cabinet: Cabinet, appointed by the President and responsible to the House of Assembly;
election: a candidate for the presidency becomes a person who has secured at least 10 (one from each province) registered electors elected by universal suffrage.
The bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (93 seats, 60 senators are elected by universal suffrage for 5 years, 10 are provincial governors appointed by the president and the prime minister, 16 traditional chiefs elected by the council of chiefs, 2 seats are occupied by the president and vice president of the council of chiefs, 5 - appointed by the President) and the House of Assembly (210 seats, deputies, elected by popular vote for 5 years);
elections: the last took place in 2013 (the next are expected in 2018)
Supreme Court; High Court.
Movement for democratic change (MoE); African National Union of Zimbabwe-Ndong (ZANU-Ndonga); African National Union Zimbabwe-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) (Robert Mugabe); Movement for the unity of Zimbabwe (ZUM)
The National Constitutional Assembly (NCA)
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G 15, G 77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (Signed), ICRM, INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION, International Monetary Fund, IMO, Interpol , IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, WORLD POSTAL UNION, WCL, WCO, WWF, WHO, WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION, WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION, WTO.
head of the diplomatic mission: Ambassador Mashvenyyika Tobias Mapuranga.
Office: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009.
phone: [1] (202) 332-7100.
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326.
head of the diplomatic mission: Ambassador James McGee.
embassy of the USA: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare.
mailing address: P. O. Boh 3340, Harare.
phone: [263] (4) 250-593 and 250-594.
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618.
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow and green with a white isosceles triangle, edged black, with a base near the shaft; a yellow bird, a symbol of Zimbabwe, is superimposed on a red five-pointed star located at the center of the triangle.
The Government of Zimbabwe is compelled to solve the most diverse, and at the same time very difficult, economic problems that are on the way to further movement of the country towards a market economy. For example, participation in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has deprived the country of several hundred million dollars. The IMF is in urgent need of financial assistance, in part because Zimbabwe does not maintain its budgetary obligations. The economy continues to be weakened by a large budget deficit and AIDS; in Zimbabwe - one of the highest levels of AIDS in the world. The GDP per capita, twice the average for the poorer countries south of the Sahara, is unlikely to increase in the near future; Zimbabwe will have to overcome the difficulties in the development of the agricultural and mining sectors in the future. The EU and the US provide food aid on humanitarian grounds. Prior to the beginning of 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe regularly printed money to finance the budget deficit, which resulted in hyperinflation in the country. The separation of power formed in February 2009 led to some economic improvements, including the cessation of hyperinflation by not using the dollar and stopping state control over prices. The economy after 2009 showed the first growth in the last decade, but depends on the further political situation in the country.
2.292 billion $ (2008)
$ 4.548 billion (2008)
200 $ (2008)
agriculture: 19.1%
4.039 million (2008)
agriculture: 66%
the lowest 10%: 2%
the highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
17.5% of GDP (2008)
income: $ 153,700
Expenses: $ 179,300 (2008)
282.6% of GDP (2009)
11 200% (2008)
975% (December 31, 2007)
578.96% (December 31, 2007)
$ 14.18 billion
5.349 billion $ (December 31, 2007)
$ 24.91 billion (December 31, 2007)
corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock, sheep, goats, pigs.
mining (mining of hard coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, other metallic and nonmetallic ores), the production of steel, cement, chemicals, fertilizers, clothing and footwear, food, beverages.
9.467 billion kWh (2006)
11.59 billion kWh (2006)
34 million kWh (2006)
2.867 billion kWh (2006)
0 barrels / day (2007)
11,000 barrels / day (2009)
5.333 billion $ (December 31, 2007)
0 barrels / day (2005)
13,830 barrels / day (2007)
0 barrels (1 January 2006)
0 m3 (2007)
0 m3 (2007)
0 m3 (2007)
0 m3 (2007)
0 m3 (January 1, 2006)
- $ 597 million (2008)
$ 1.806 billion (2008)
tobacco products, gold, ferroalloys, cotton.
Democratic Republic of the Congo - 14.82%, South Africa - 13.39%, Botswana - 13.23%, China - 7.82%, Zambia 7.3%, Netherlands 5.39%, Great Britain 4.93%
2.337 billion $ (2008)
machinery and transport equipment, other industrial products, chemicals, various fuels.
South Africa - 62.24%, China - 4.2% (2009)
$ 100 million (December 31, 2008)
$ 5.255 billion (December 31, 2008)
no data.
no data.
the dollar of Zimbabwe (ZWD) against the US dollar is 30,000 (2007), 162.07 (2006), 77.965 (2005), 5.729 (2004)
344 500 (2007)
1.226 million (2007)
Overall assessment: the system was once one of the best in Africa, but to-day suffers from under-maintenance; more than 100,000 connection orders remain unfulfilled, although the same number of spent lines are not used;
internal: consists of microwave radio relay communication, land lines, radiotelephone communication stations, local wireless closed loop system and a significant cellular network; The Internet is available in Harare; it is planned to provide Internet access to all major cities and a number of smaller large settlements;
international: country code - 263; satellite terrestrial stations - 2 Intelsat; two stations of international digital communication (in Harare and Gweru)
AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), short wave 1 (1998)
19 157 (2008)
1.351 million (2007)
total no.: 19.
the strip is longer than 3 047 m: 3.
2 438 - 3 047 m .: 2.
1 524 - 2 437 m .: 4.
914 - 1,523 m .: 10 (2007)
total quantity: 322.
1 524 - 2 437 m .: 4.
914 - 1,523 m .: 152.
the band is shorter than 914 m .: 166 (2007)
refined products 270 km (2007)
in total: 3,077 km.
narrow gauge: 3,077 km with track gauge at 1.067 m (electrified 313 km) (2006)
in total: 97,267 km.
paved: 18,481 km.
unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
on Lake Kariba (2008)
Binga, the Caribbean.
National Army of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Air Force, Republican Police of Zimbabwe (includes police support compound and paramilitary police) (2008)
18-24 years - age for conscription; women have the right to serve (2007)
the age of men is 16-49: 3 264 258.
age of women 16-49: 3 048 049 (2008)
the age of men is 16-49: 1 643 036.
age of women 16-49: 1 404 663 (2008)
men: 144,601.
women: 147,627 (2008)
3.8% of GDP (2006)
Botswana equipped electrical fences, South Africa deployed troops along the border to stop the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans illegally crossing the border in search of work to avoid political persecution.
refugees (country of origin): 2,500 (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
immigrants: 569,685 (as a result of political violence and other persecution by President Mugabe's regime) (2007)
Zimbabwe is the source, transit country and destination country for men, women and children trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation; The scale of migration of Zimbabweans to neighboring countries has increased; in rural areas of Zimbabwe, men, women and children are sold domestically for agricultural work, domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation (2008)
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