The main centers of international labor migration.
The main centers of international labor migration are the section Politics, International Labor Migration. The main centers of the International Labor Migration. In the Development Process of the Intern.
The main centers of international labor migration. In the process of developing the international labor market, more and more countries were involved in its activities.
Gradually, there were several main centers in which labor migration processes are most active.
Western Europe has traditionally been a region in which migration processes are active. Countries that host the bulk of immigrants are Germany, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands. According to data for 1990, there were 4,630,000 foreign workers in Germany (mainly Turks, Yugoslavs, Italians), in France - about 4 million (mostly Africans), in the UK - 1736 thousand. In the late 80's a new trend in the use of foreign labor in Western Europe was manifested: its share decreased in the branches of industry and construction, but increased in services, financial institutions, and real estate.
If initially the center of labor migration was mainly the countries of Western Europe, in the 1970s the labor market in the region of the oil-producing countries of the Middle East rapidly developed.
By the beginning of the 1990s there were more than 4.5 million migrant workers (while the number of local workers was 2 million). The share of foreign labor in the total labor force is very significant. It is about 97% in the United Arab Emirates, 95.6% in Qatar, 86.5% in Kuwait, and 40% in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. The main exporter of labor in this region is Egypt, here also emigrants from Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh work.
It should be noted that the fall in oil prices in the mid-1980s led to a reduction in the need for labor in the region. According to Western experts in the countries of the Persian Gulf in the early 90's, unemployment was about 3.7% of the working-age population. Apparently, this indicator in the region will grow, not only due to the unfavorable oil situation, but also due to such a factor as the rapid growth of the economically active population.
Some Arab countries are both exporters and importers of labor, for example, Jordan, Yemen. Traditionally, the largest center attracting migrants is the United States of America. Experts estimate that in the 1980s, about half of the US population growth was in immigrants. Currently, there are about 3 million legal foreign workers. However, it should be noted that immigration to this country has traditionally been assimilated, that is, the bulk of migrants entering the country seeks to stay in it. Thus, here, mainly, there is resettlement migration.
At the same time, it is quite common here to use the labor of illegal immigrants. In 1986, a law was passed to punish entrepreneurs using illegal labor, in the form of fines and other sanctions, including imprisonment. But the proportion of illegal migrant labor is still increasing, especially in agriculture, construction, food industry.
Another center of international migration of the country of the Asia-Pacific region. Here the main importers of the labor force are Brunei, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, Taiwan. For these countries, various forms of labor migration are characteristic. Firstly, regulated labor migration. It is typical for Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong.
Secondly, the latent or illegal migration, which is developed in East and West Malaysia, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Taiwan. Thirdly, the migration of a highly qualified workforce that accompanies foreign direct investment carried out by Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia. Cross-country labor migration also occurs in Africa and Latin America. In the sphere of the international labor market, more and more countries are being drawn in. Migration flows are an important factor in the development of the world economy as a whole . 5. Russia and International Labor Migration Russia became participants in the international labor market only in the early 1990s.
Before that, during the period of the administrative-command economy, the USSR population took a minimal part in the processes of international labor migration. Departure abroad and entry from abroad were strictly regulated by the state. Soviet specialists went to work on labor contracts mainly to third world countries, which proclaimed the desire to follow the socialist path of development.
Organization of international migration processes was carried out only by state bodies. During the period of restructuring of our country's economy, departure from administrative and command methods of management in all spheres of life, the processes of international labor migration have significantly intensified. A significant role here was played by the disintegration of the USSR. Earlier, the arrival to work in the Russian Federation from Armenia, Georgia or other republics was internal migration, now similar processes refer to international labor migration.
Russia is now both a donor country and a recipient country. A lot of Russian citizens go to developed countries to earn money. And not always it is a question of work on a specialty. Due to the high unemployment rate, people often agree to perform low-skilled work, because they get a relatively high salary for this, in their opinion.
At the same time, the flow of labor migrants from the near abroad countries has rushed to Russia, as the standard of living in Russia is relatively higher than the standard of living in Ukraine, Belarus and other CIS republics. A characteristic feature of Russia's participation in the processes of international labor migration is the weak role of the state in regulating these processes. As a result, a large number of foreign workers are used under illegal conditions.
On the other hand, mechanisms have not been created to use the positive aspects of emigration of workers under labor contracts, which does not allow ensuring a proper inflow of foreign exchange funds into the Russian economy from both intermediary firms and official migrants' remittances to their homeland .
This topic belongs to the section:
International Labor Migration.
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The main centers of international labor migration.