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The foreign Europe of the global center of immigration

The foreign Europe of the global center of immigration
9. Foreign Europe as a region of labor migration of the population.
Overseas Europe since the time of the Great Geographical Discoveries was the world's leading region of out-migration to overseas countries. Only for a century from 1815 to 1914, the "pure" emigration from it amounted to 35-40 million people. In the first half of the XIX century. among the emigrants were the inhabitants of Great Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, Scandinavian and Pyrenean countries, and in the second half the center of gravity of the process shifted to the east. This was the so-called new emigration - from Austria-Hungary, the Balkan countries, Russia. It continued in the interwar period.
The Second World War and the changes connected with it in the political system of many states and within their borders led, first of all, to mass displacements of the population between the European countries themselves. This primarily affected Eastern Europe (Figure 13). As it is easy to see, the most crowded external migrations in the subregion were related to the massive introduction of Germans into Germany from other countries. Of these, 7.4 million people settled in West Germany, 4.3 million people in the East. For Western Europe in the first post-war period, the most typical was the massive repatriation of people from the former colonies of Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium. For example, from Algeria to France returned at least 1 million French, from Indonesia to the Netherlands -300 thousand Dutch. However, until the mid-1950's. Western Europe had a negative balance of migration, that is, emigration was superior to immigration.
Later, however, the situation began to change rapidly, and foreign Europe became the world's largest market for the attraction of labor. Thus, in 1950 the number of foreigners in Western Europe [10] was 5.1 million people (1.3% of the total population), by 1970 it had increased to 10.2 million (2.2%), by 1980 - up to 15 million (3.1%), and by 1990 - up to 16.6 million (4%). In the late 1990s. the number of foreigners only in the EU countries, according to some data, reached 20 million people, while the share of Europe in the total volume of international international migration has increased to 20%. Of course, this number includes migrants for political and other reasons, but the majority of newly arrived people were labor migrants.
Fig. 13. Population movements in Eastern Europe after World War II (according to D. Enedi)
The causes of the transformation of Western Europe into a large region of the attraction of migrants were studied in detail by many foreign and domestic geographers. The main reason for this attraction is the desire for higher earnings and more comfortable working and living conditions that "guests-workers" ("guest workers") from more backward countries expect to satisfy in the most highly developed countries of Western Europe. They constitute the majority of all immigrants, and their share in the economically active population, as a rule, is much higher than the proportion of immigrants in the entire population of the host countries. As for the host countries themselves, their interest in labor immigration is primarily due to the demographic situation (depopulation, increase in the share of pensioners and a decrease in the proportion of the able-bodied), which was mentioned above.
In the geographical literature, one can also find attempts to analyze this migration process in more detail, with the identification of its individual stages. So, in the 50-60's. XX century, when the economy of Western Europe developed mainly along an extensive path, foreign labor became widely used mainly in the most low-paid and least prestigious areas of activity. Switzerland was the first to take such a path, and then other countries followed its example. In the second half of the 70's. XX century, after the energy crisis, which actually grew into an economic crisis, a certain outflow of foreign workers began. Later, when the transition to a post-industrial stage of development was more clearly defined in Western Europe and the requirements to the quality of labor resources were sharply raised, labor migrants, poorly qualified in the mainstream, ceased to meet new requirements, and many countries began to regulate and restrict their inflow. This was especially true of illegal immigrants, the total number of which in the region, according to some sources, reaches 3 million people.
Immigration indicators relating to individual countries in Western Europe are shown in Table 8.
In addition, from 100 thousand to 500 thousand foreigners live in Austria, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Luxembourg. Their share in the labor force is particularly high in Luxembourg (33%), Switzerland, the Netherlands and Belgium (18-20%), Germany and Austria (about 10%).
The main migration flows within Western Europe are shown in Figure 14. On its basis, the states of the region can be divided into two large groups: 1) countries of primary emigration and 2) countries of preferential immigration.
For a long time the countries of emigration included the states of Southern Europe-Italy, Spain, Portugal, countries on the territory of the former SFRY, Albania, Greece, which, in the first of the above-mentioned stages, provided the bulk of labor migrants, but in the 1990s. this their function has actually come to naught. From the Nordic countries this group includes Ireland and Finland. Labor migrant flows to Western Europe were also directed from North Africa and from almost all subregions of Asia. And in terms of the total number of such migrants, Turkey, the countries on the territory of the former Yugoslavia, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Algeria were ahead. Some of them, for example, countries in the territory of the former SFRY, were characterized by a particularly strong diversification (fragmentation) of emigration flows (Figure 15). And this is not to mention the fact that in the 1990s, after the armed conflicts in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and later in Serbia with the former SFRY, the largest movements of migrants in Europe probably occurred during the entire period after the end of World War II war.
Fig. 14. The main flows of external migration in Western Europe after the Second World War (according to Yu. N. Matveev)
Fig. 15. Flows of migrants from countries located in the territory of the former SFRY.
The countries of immigration, as follows from the analysis of Figure 14 and Table 8, primarily include the states located in the western and northern parts of Europe. Each of them has its own "sphere of attraction" for migrants. Thus, among the labor migrants in Germany, most are immigrants from Turkey and countries located in the territory of the former SFRY. Very large diasporas are also from other countries of the European Union - Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, the Netherlands. In France, quantitatively, immigrants from Portugal, Spain and Italy, as well as from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. In the UK, migrants from Ireland and overseas English-speaking countries predominate, in the Netherlands - in the first stage from Suriname and Indonesia, and then from the Mediterranean countries.
Geographically, the question of how foreign workers are distributed within individual host countries is of great interest. The analysis shows that for the most part they settle in the main industrial regions and large cities.
For example, in France, 37% of immigrants are concentrated in Greater Paris, in Belgium 24% - in Brussels. In Germany, the bulk of migrants are concentrated in the four most industrialized lands: North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Wurttemberg, Bavaria and Hesse; in large cities, the share of foreign workers in the total number of employed is 20-25%. This is explained by the fact that "out-of-town" workers, who are in the majority of low qualifications, go primarily to industries such as construction, mining and metallurgy, to enterprises with monotonous conveyor production, and also to work as cleaners for streets, premises, newspaper sellers , car washes, etc. For example, in France, "guest workers" account for 45% of all employed in the construction industry, about 40% employed in road construction, 25% in the automotive industry, in Belgium - half of miners, in Switzerland - 40% of construction workers. In Luxembourg, "guest workers" mainly work at metallurgical plants of the concern ARBED.
Interestingly, in the UK, the question of nationality was first included in the 1991 census. It turned out that 76.8% (5.3 million people) of the population of Greater London were "white", 5% (347 thousand) - Indians , 4.32% (300 thousand) - Negroes and mulattoes, people from the Caribbean region, 3.69% (256 thousand) - Irish, 2.36% (164 thousand) - Negroes, descendants from African countries, 1 , 26% (88 thousand) - Pakistanis, 1.23% (86 thousand) - Bangladeshi, 0.81% (57 thousand) - the Chinese. Most Negroes, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Indians belong to the category of unskilled and semi-skilled labor. At the same time, a sort of "ethnic islands" emerged within Greater London: the Indians in Brent and Anfield, the people from the Caribbean region in Lambeth, the countries of Africa in Southturk, and the Chinese in Westminster.
Undoubtedly, the influx of millions of additional workers to the most advanced countries of Western Europe helped accelerate the process of their re-industrialization, the transition to a post-industrial stage of development. But at the same time, it also led to an aggravation of many social contradictions, both in the labor market and in the general demographic, which is associated with a much higher natural increase in the families of migrants and an increase in their share in the total population. Such exacerbations are especially characteristic for periods of economic crises and production downturns, accompanied by a fall in living standards, rising unemployment, inflation and other social upheavals. That is why in the 1980s. most host countries have introduced measures to limit or even stop the recruitment of labor abroad. Immigration continues almost exclusively with the goal of family reunification, which does not entail an increase in employment in production. Most Western European countries have adopted state programs to encourage the repatriation of officially registered aliens. Nevertheless, in some countries - in the UK, France and Germany - the presence of a large number of immigrants sometimes causes massive protests, sometimes reaching armed clashes and pogroms. In explaining their causes, one must also take into account the fact that in the second half of the 1990s, about 20 million able-bodied Europeans did not have a job, and the level of long-term unemployment in the European Union was significantly higher than in the US or Japan.
Recently, the ruling circles and the public of Western Europe are increasingly alarmed by the threat of Islamization. The community of immigrants from the Islamic world is growing rapidly due to the inflow of new migrants and a high level of childbearing (it is 3 times higher than in European families). Statistics do not provide accurate information about the number of Muslims in Western Europe. Usually it is believed that their 15-20 million, including in France - 6, in Germany - 3,2, in the UK - 1,5 million, in the Netherlands - 900 thousand, in Spain - 500, in Belgium - 400 , in Austria, Denmark and Greece from 160 to 180 thousand Western European countries have taken a course to isolate the Muslim community from their indigenous (titular) nations. The Muslim protests against such a policy have more than once taken the form of mass clashes with the police. (Suffice it to recall youth riots in the suburbs of Paris and other French cities in 2005-2006.) On the other hand, it can not be denied that many Muslim enclaves have become hotbeds of the shadow economy, crime, and criminalization. There are numerous territorial groups operating here, including high-profile terrorist attacks in Great Britain, Spain and other countries related to Al-Kai-Doi - the work of their hands.
In the 1990s. the formation of a single European not only political, but also social space also affected the rights of immigrants, as it were, by dividing them into two large groups. The first of these includes immigrants who are native inhabitants of the EU countries, who for one reason or another have changed their place of residence. They are endowed with broad political and social rights, including participation in the elections of the European Parliament and free movement through the territory of the countries of the Union. The second group consists of immigrants from countries outside the European Union, primarily from non-European developing countries. Their rights are severely limited. With the EU, a special body has been established - the Migrants Forum, representing over a hundred different emigre organizations.
For the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, external migration throughout the post-war period (with the exception of the massive migration flows shown in Figure 13) was of little character. Some exception was the emigration from the GDR to the FRG, which in 1950-1961 was. (before the construction of the Berlin Wall) more than 3.8 million people and in 1961-1988. more than 550 thousand people. Labor migration was also not very characteristic for this subregion, although the same GDR, for example, used labor from Poland, Vietnam and Mozambique. However, in the 1990s, international migrations in the East-West direction have increased significantly. On the one hand, this is due to the return of ethnic Germans from countries located on the territory of the former USSR and some others to their historical homeland in the FRG, and on the other hand, a general outflow of migrants from post-socialist countries to Western Europe. Recently, some of the most developed countries of Western Europe are taking measures to attract more highly qualified specialists. For example, Germany in 2000 officially announced its intention to invite to work 20 thousand foreign experts in the field of computer technology.
A special question is about the "invasion" of Western Europe by immigrants from those countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which in 2004 were admitted to the EU. As remuneration in the EU countries is much higher than in even relatively prosperous Czech Republic, Hungary or Slovenia, a massive influx of migrants from these countries is quite possible. In particular, such a situation worries neighboring Germany and Austria.
Existing forecasts suggest that in the future the inflow of migrants to Europe will increase. This is due to both a general decrease in the number of Europeans, and a change in the proportion between workers aged 15 to 64 and dependents - children and pensioners. There are two ways to get rid of the threat of a demographic crisis: either to revise the social security system, including the pension system, or even broaden the borders for migrants. Experts believe that preference will be given to the second option. But in this case, according to the calculations already made, in the next quarter of a century the European Union will have to accept about 160 million immigrants! The most threatening here again is the Islamic factor. According to some estimates, in 2050 Muslims will account for almost half the population of a foreign Europe.

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