New Zealand - the history of research and ocean species.
In 1768 the English Admiralty assembles a round-the-world expedition on the barge "Endeavor" (English Endeavor - effort, aspiration) under the command of Captain James Cook.
"Endeavor" is depicted on a New Zealand coin with a denomination of 50 cents.
James was the son of a Scottish peasant, and made a magnificent maritime career, rising from a cabin boy to a captain of the first rank. In his life there were many discoveries and tests. In that first round-the-world expedition, after New Zealand, he explored and mapped the east coast of Australia and discovered the Great Barrier Reef - the only living organism on Earth visible from space. At the same time, thanks to the diet developed by him, for three years of swimming none of his team died of scurvy (although they were not lucky with malaria and dysentery).
Portrait of James Cook by John Webber, 1776
It appears quite unexpectedly: just a steep mountain serpentine walked through a narrow, wooded road, along the edge of the hill, and suddenly a port city appears in the gleam of trees. Picton is the gateway to the South Island. Literally in half an hour's drive along the coast along the most beautiful road of Queen Charlotte, these types open:
low tide at the entrance to Nelson, the water is very far from the coast:
These species will accompany the traveler right up to the national park of Abel Tasman - a favorite place for active beach recreation of South-island New Zealanders. There you can swim along the coast on a kayak or walk along the fern forest.
We will go to the warmer north.
The northern fjords differ from the southern fjords, these are, rather, wooded hills:
Closer to the ocean, the forest is replaced by shrubs and grass:
The sun is moving toward the sunset, the colors are getting warmer.
Here are the last cliffs of the South Island,
ahead - only the ocean!
How beautiful are the sunsets of the southern seas, I love them very much!
In communication with the islanders (and, of course, the islanders), the time in the tropical paradise flew unnoticed.
Eddie, who had never seen either ice or snow, was shocked. He first took an icy field for the land and was amazed at its whiteness and brilliance. But then, when he was shown that ice could melt and turn into water, his surprise was boundless. Falling snow Tahitian called heavenly stones. He collected it and put it in a special box, as he wanted to bring this wonderful substance with him to Tahiti and show his friends. Eddie was deeply saddened when he was told that he would not be able to do it. And seeing new miracles, he was not happy, but rather, on the contrary, mourned. "Why are you upset?" They asked, "you've traveled half the world." You will have something to boast about at home. " "No one will believe me there," Eddie replied sadly.
"I went south beyond all previous navigators and reached the limits where human opportunities are exhausted," he wrote in his diary.
The weather deteriorated, a cold wind blew, the snow grew stronger. Tackles were covered with ice crust, giant icicles hung from the rai. January 30, 1774, when the "Resolution" reached 71 � 10 'south latitude, the path to it was blocked by a continuous field of pack ice.
Standing on the deck and wrapped in a raincoat, the captain peered at the heap of ice hummocks. "There is no Southern continent," Cook cried in his heart, and even if I could not find him, no one can! ".
And Cook, not reaching the coast of Antarctica for several dozen miles, turned back.
His authority was so strong that for almost half a century no one even tried to swim in these parts.
The first (red color), the second (green) and the third (blue) expedition of Cook.
Cook swam through the still unnamed strait between Asia and America, but at 70m degrees north latitude he was blocked by continuous ice fields. On the way back to Unalashka he unexpectedly met Russian sailors, who had found a much more accurate map of this region. This turned out to be the map of Captain Bering, who explored these lands about 40 years ago. Cook carefully repainted the map and called the strait between Asia and America named after Bering.
But I will tell you this story another time, and now we will return to New Zealand.
So it turned out that we came to the "pancake rocks" (Pancace Rocs) after sunset, but it did not stop me from shooting them, even more interesting happened! I especially like the shooting star that fell into the frame 🙂
North of the northern island. The gannet colony:
A week after the arrival of the first immigrants, the representative of the British Crown began negotiations with the Maori leaders gathered near the Waitangi River. On February 6, about 50 leaders signed an agreement, named after the river. The Treaty of Waitangi contained three provisions, according to which the Maori recognized the supreme power of Queen Victoria, having received from her the promise of protection and confirmation of the ownership of their land.
However, the English version of the treaty and its translation into the Maori language were strikingly different from each other and allowed considerable discrepancies. In addition, the settlers who continued to arrive were indignant at the delays in obtaining land they had officially acquired in New Zealand from a land company in England. They disputed the legal validity of the Treaty of Waitangi and seized the lands themselves. This caused the bloody New Zealand land wars. As a result, about 16 thousand square meters. km of land belonging to the Maori were confiscated by the colonial administration. Later, most of them were returned, or compensation was paid, but lawsuits to return land are still being considered in New Zealand.
"Yes," added Paganel, "cannibalism rampaged among the ancestors of the most civilized nations, and do not count, my friends, for personal offense, if I tell you that it was especially developed among the Scots."
- Indeed? said McNabbs.
"Yes, Major," confirmed Paganel. - If you read some excerpts from the chronicles of Scotland, you will see what were your forefathers, and even without going into prehistoric times, you can indicate that in the reign of Elizabeth Scottish robber Sonya Bean was executed for cannibalism. What prompted him to eat human meat? Special religious beliefs? No, the famine.
"Hunger?" John Mangles asked.
"Yes, hunger," repeated Paganel, "or, more precisely, that need to replenish in the body the supply of nitrogen contained in animal food, which all carnivores experience." Roots, starchy vegetables are useful for lung work. But to be strong, you must eat meat, which has everything you need to strengthen the muscles. Until the Maori enter into a vegetarian society, they will eat meat, and human meat.
- And why not animal meat? Glenarvan asked.
"Because they do not have animals," Paganel replied, "and you need to know: not to justify New Zealanders, but to explain their cannibalism." Not only four-legged, but also birds are rare in this inhospitable province. The savages began to eat human meat to satisfy their hunger. Later their priests approved and consecrated this monstrous custom. The need has become a rite - that's all. They even have a season of cannibalism, like a hunting season in civilized countries. Here the New Zealanders begin great hunts, in other words - great wars, after which whole tribes fall on the winners table.
In addition, from the Maori point of view, there is nothing more natural than eating each other. Missionaries often spoke with them about cannibalism. They asked why they were eating their brothers. To this the leaders replied that the fish eat fish, dogs - people, people - dogs and that dogs eat each other. In their mythology, there is even a legend about how one god ate another. Based on such examples, how to resist the temptation to devour their own kind? Moreover, the New Zealanders assert that when the enemy is consumed, his soul, strength, valor passes to them, for all this is mainly contained in his brain. That's why the brain and is considered at feasts ogres the best and honorable dish. If you believe the savages, Maori meat is like pork, but more flavorful. They are not very eager for European meat, because white adds salt to the food, and this gives their meat a special flavor that gourmets do not like.
"They are choosy!" said the major. - Well, how do they eat this meat - raw or fried?
"Why do you need to know this, Mr. McNabbs?" exclaimed Robert.
"Why, my boy!" the major replied gravely. "After all, if I have to end my days in a mouth with an ogre, I prefer to be fried."
"It will give me confidence that I will not be eaten alive."
"What if you are roasted alive, Major?" The geographer puzzled.
New Zealand - the history of research and ocean species.