Mass emigration in Kazakhstan
Slonova GV, Srailova GM
Kazakh National Pedagogical University. Abay, Kazakhstan.
History and language of the Germans in Kazakhstan.
It is known that the Germans constituted a significant part of the population of the former Soviet Union. The ethnic, cultural and linguistic originality of the Russian Germans gave rise to some scholars to regard them as a special nationality.
In today's Kazakhstan, there are more than 120 nations and nationalities. This is a great wealth of our society, but at the same time it is a great concern. One of the most numerous diasporas is the German one. Until recently, almost one million Germans resided in Kazakhstan, which constituted the third largest national diaspora. Since the mid-1980s, mass emigration of Germans to Germany began. And although, as a consequence, the number of Germans has declined, in recent years there has been a stabilization of the population.
Where did the Germans come from in Kazakhstan? The history of the German diaspora in Kazakhstan is more than 200 years old. In Kazakhstan, the Germans began to appear almost at the same time as they appeared in the Russian state. As part of the Russian military expeditions sent to the vast southeastern regions of the Russian Empire, the German nobility, who served in tsarist Russia, and the scientists invited by Peter I and the subsequent monarchs to the Russian Academy of Sciences, took an important place.
In one of such expeditions in 1734 Friedrich Miller created a geographical description of Northern Kazakhstan, the life of local residents. At the same time, Buchholz explored the Altai Territory and Lake Zaysan, Petr-Simon Pallas and Eugene Eversman described Central and Western Kazakhstan. They first found out that the level of the Caspian Sea lies below the level of the world's oceans and hypothesized the connection between the Caspian and Black Seas. At the beginning of the XIX century, the world famous mathematician Euler worked in an expedition that studied the lower reaches of the Ural River. He was the first to create a map of the Ural River and organized the first meteorological station in the former Guryev. The genesis of the Balkhash-Akkol lake system was first given by the German researcher von Schrenk. He also in 1840-43 years. investigated the area of the Dzungarian Alatau and estimated the heights of the peaks according to the barometric effect.
In the middle of the last century astronomer Struve created a hydrographic map of the Aral and Caspian seas. According to the books of Wilhelm Bartold and Friedrich Radlov, who left unique information on the life and life of nomads, students of historical faculties of Kazakhstan universities are still studying. The subsoil of Kazakhstan was investigated by E. Michaels, K. Werner, von Grent, A. Frideriks. The name of the outstanding botanist E. Baum is a large grove in Almaty. Omsk Governor-General von Spinger was friendly with the Kazakh sultan Chingis Valikhanov and did much to promote his son - the outstanding Kazakh scientist Chokan Valikhanov.
The Governor-General of the Turkestan Krai von Kaufman was educating the local population, the doctor Alexander Schwarz rescued from the ailments of the inhabitants of Southern Kazakhstan. Up to 10% of Russian entrepreneurs who worked in Kazakhstan at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries were Germans. Wili Pfaff founded the Shymkent pharmaceutical plant, a gold mining plant in Stepnogorsk was built by Hans Springer.
The first German settlements appeared in Kazakhstan at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the beginning of the First World War, the geography of their location had significantly expanded, and the number of villages themselves had increased noticeably. In the course of implementing the main provisions of the Stolypin agrarian reform, aimed at solving the land issue in Russia through economic development of the outlying areas of the country, the German diaspora increased significantly and began to play a significant role in the social and economic life of the region. The first major focus of German peasant colonization in the Steppe region arose in the Omsk district of the Akmola region on state lands. By 1915 on the state lands in the Akmola province, 56 German settlements were established with an allotment of more than 260 thousand dessiatins and a population of about 27 thousand people.
The deportation of Russian Germans from the European part of the Soviet Union and from the Caucasus was begun in July 1941. Places for & quot; resettlement & quot; Volga Germans were to become "abounding in arable land areas of the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions, the Altai Territory, Kazakhstan and other neighboring areas." Places of residence of Germans in Kazakhstan were mainly Karaganda, Kustanai, Tselinograd, Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, Kokchetav, Jambul regions. When the Germans were removed from the register of special settlements (Decree of December 30, 1955); they were given the right to move to other parts of the country, except for the places where they lived before the war. At the same time, some measures were taken to improve the lives of Germans in various regions of the USSR, including in Kazakhstan; for example, the teaching of German in schools was expanded. An important role was played at the same time by negotiations with the FRG, which demanded the return to Germany of persons having German citizenship, including those who received it during the Second World War.
With the beginning of perestroika, the Russian Germans are intensifying their struggle for the restoration of autonomy; First of all, we are talking about recreating the republic on the Volga. These attempts run into significant difficulties and do not lead to the desired result. At the same time, work is under way to familiarize Germans living in the countries of the former USSR with German culture and improve the teaching of the German language. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany allocates considerable funds to help in this matter. The regions that received significant assistance from the FRG in 1990 were, for example, Pavlodar, Karaganda and Kustanai oblasts in Kazakhstan.
The Germans did not receive full rehabilitation, that is, their statehood, but for the first time after half a century of oblivion they truly felt themselves to be an ethnic community, which is characterized by national self-awareness and the desire for ethnic self-preservation.
The process of activating the national consciousness in Kazakhstan, including the German one, began in 1989. Throughout the efforts of enthusiasts, the Renaissance societies and the national cultural centers of the Germans were created. At two convocations of the Germans of Kazakhstan (in 1992 and 1995), a Council of Germans was elected representing the interests of the half-million population of the republic at that time. And in 1994 a German house was opened in Almaty, now known all over Kazakhstan and beyond. For a short period of its existence, the House managed to become the center of the cultural and socio-political life of the Germans. And the Council of Germans became a reliable bridge between Kazakhstan and Germany, a point of contact of mutual interests of our countries, primarily related to the vital activity of the German ethnic group in Kazakhstan. He developed the Comprehensive Program for the Ethnic Revival of Germans (approved in October 1993 by a decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan). Based on this program, regional programs for ethnic revival have been developed and adopted. In December 1994, a decision was made to extend its validity and additional measures were approved for this program.
The Council of Germans attaches great importance to the work on the revival of the native language. In Astana, the efforts of the regional society "Revival" created a German complex, which includes a kindergarten, primary school and a gymnasium. In Karaganda, a German progymnasium (primary school) and a German kindergarten were opened.
A significant role in the activities of German public associations is occupied by cultural and recreational work aimed at the revival and dissemination of culture. Choral and vocal groups, folklore, music and family ensembles, dance groups operate at regional, city and regional national-cultural centers. At the centers there are libraries, German children's Sunday schools. Training of personnel for cultural centers is conducted by two music colleges in the cities of Pavlodar and Rudny.
In Almaty there is the only German drama theater in the CIS. The inhabitants of Kazakhstan and abroad learn about the life of the Germans from the constantly operating weekly television program "Guten Abend", regular republican radio programs in German, the newspapers "Deutsche Algemeine", which receive subsidies from the republican budget. Since 1958 there is a German edition on the Kazakh state radio. State support is also given to the literary-artistic and socio-political almanac "Phoenix".
Since the fall of 1997, the popular publication "Euroasian Courier" was published in Germany, calculated both for people from Kazakhstan and for other readers. A special mention is the unification of German scientists in Kazakhstan.
The German ethnos, being a part of the multinational people of Kazakhstan, stands for national accord. It is impossible to create a reliable basis for civil consolidation and to achieve national consensus in such a multiethnic state as Kazakhstan, without restoring historical truth, no matter how bitter it may be. The truth of the story is that in different years and periods entire nations were exiled to the territory of Kazakhstan, which survived only thanks to the help and support of the Kazakh people, who fraternally shared the latter with them.
The historical and cultural heritage of each ethnic group inhabiting Kazakhstan, the unique customs and traditions of the peoples are our common heritage, which should be protected, developed and mutually enriched as a national property of all Kazakhstanis.
At present, the leadership of Kazakhstan is taking a number of measures aimed at reducing emigration. It should be noted that more and more Kazakh Germans, who have left for Germany in recent years, are eager to return. The government of the country confirms its interest in the return of compatriots and in maintaining ties with the former Kazakhstanis, who are now living in their historical homeland. This is the simplification of the visa regime and the return of citizenship. Care for preservation of ties between Kazakhstani and German compatriots, their versatile cooperation is an indispensable condition for the preservation and development of the German ethnic group in multinational Kazakhstan.
The problems of the language spoken and spoken by Germans from the countries of the former USSR are largely related to their origin, to the German homeland. Living today in Kazakhstan, as in other republics of the former USSR, the Germans are descendants of immigrants from various regions of Germany. Most of them come from the southwestern regions, where the peasants especially suffered from shortage of land, ruin as a result of long-standing wars with France, as well as high taxes and taxes. The regions from which there was intensive emigration in the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century were, for example, northern Alsace, northern Baden, Wurttemberg, Hesse, the Palatinate. On the other hand, for a number of years there was a massive resettlement of German peasants from northern Germany. Among the colonists were the Swiss. As is known, there are many regional varieties of the German language (dialects), which are still widely used in Germany today in everyday communication, especially in rural areas. It is clear that the native language of the peasants who moved to the Russian Empire was the dialect of the locality from which the colonists arrived.
As a result of the deportation of Germans during and after the Second World War, in some areas of Kazakhstan a special, not only demographic and social, but also a language situation has developed. There were multinational villages with a significant proportion of the German population. Often in the same family there was a kind of multilingualism, and if the speakers of the High German dialects understood each other relatively well, the Low German dialects differed so much from others that mutual understanding was impossible. & quot; Common Language & quot; in this case serves either Russian, or dialectally colored literary German. At the same time, many speakers of the dialect, especially the Low German ("Mennonite") experienced great difficulties in learning the German literary language.
The study of the language of Russian Germans dates back to the years of the First World War, when German Germanist W. Unvert recorded a number of dialects in the prisoner of war camp and even attempted to classify these dialects. In the 1920s and early 30s, German settler dialects were studied in Saratov under the guidance of Professor G. G. Dinges, and then AP Dulzon, and in Leningrad under the guidance of Professor VM Zhirmunsky.
Scientists of Kazakhstan, mainly from Alma-Ata, also became interested in German dialects. Already in 1964, G. Pankratz published in his collection of works of the Alma-Ata State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages his first work in the Lower German dialect on the territory of the USSR. Another scientist from Alma-Ata, AA Weilert, who studied the dialects of natives of the Volga colonies, who moved back in 1907-1908 to the region of Karaganda.
Russian Germans, many of whom live in Kazakhstan today, have preserved not only dialects, but also folklore, mainly songs, customs and rituals, a special way of life that allows them to maintain their national identity.
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Mass emigration in Kazakhstan