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Immigration to Finland.

Immigration to Finland.
Immigration to Finland (Finnish Maahanmuuttajat Suomessa, Swedish Invandring till Finland) is the entrance to long-term or permanent residence in Finland of persons born outside of Finland. In Finland, they are also called "new Finns" (Finnish uusisuomalaiset). In 2009, there were 233 183 (4% of the population) and 155 705 foreign citizens, including those with dual citizenship.
In 2015, an agreement on the redistribution of migrants to all countries of the European Union en masse entering Greece and Italy entered into force (Finland's quota by agreement was 800 people) [1] [2].
Content.
Swedish rule.
First of all, soldiers from Sweden entered the territory of Finland, priests and officials. Also new in the new lands of the profession developed with the help of foreign artisans: for example, valleys were valued as smiths and miners.
Russian rule.
After the conquest of Finland, the Russian Empire began to build many fortifications. Russian, Jews, Tatars arrived from Russia, and the Chinese during the First World War. The country has a stable Jewish and Tatar minority. After gaining independence in 1917, part of the immigrants returned to Russia, the other part remained permanently. Many traditionally Finnish companies such as Enso-Gutzeit, Stockmann, Fazer, Sinebrychoff, Finlayson, Fiskars are founded by immigrants or their heirs in the 1800s. With the help of foreign specialists, knowledge of various technical innovations has been obtained: for example, in the second half of the 1800s, Swedish miners with their families arrived in the Impilahti mine for decades to form their community in the midst of the Karelian Orthodox culture.
The first years of independence.
In the first years of independence thousands of people fled to Finland from the revolution from Russia. Many of them died in the civil war in Finland. At the beginning of 1919, 15,457 Russians were officially registered, but the real number was greater, as only in Vyborg 11,000 refugees were registered. The flow of refugees reaches a maximum in 1922, when over 33,500 people arrived across the eastern border. Refugees were from St. Petersburg Finns, Ingermanlanders, Eastern Karelians, as well as representatives of the higher nobility, for example, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich Romanov, officers and business owners. After the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising in 1921, 6,400 sailors fled across the ice of the Gulf of Finland to Finland. Some of the arrivals remained to live in the country, replenishing the Russian community, others moved further to Europe. From 1917 to 1939 about 44,000 refugees settled in Finland. According to some estimates from 1917 to 1944, 100,000 people sought refuge in Finland.
The Second World War.
During the Second World War, foreigners who were considered the fifth column were interned in camps, and some were sent to concentration camps in Germany. During the war Ingermanlanders and Estonians arrived in the country. Most of them (those who did not manage to escape to the west) were issued after the war to the Soviet Union.
After the Second World War.
After the war, the flow of immigrants was insignificant. For the most part this was the result of marriages. The first large group of immigrants - 182 refugees from Chile, arrived in the 1970s after the Pinochet military coup. Most of them returned to their homeland in the early 1990s with the end of the military dictatorship. Systematic immigration began with the Vietnamese in the 1980s. Somalis begin to arrive in the early 1990s, hiding from military dictator Barre arriving in transit through Russia to the West. With the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbs, Albanians, Bosnian Muslims and Croats fled to Finland.
Entering the European Union has changed immigration policy [3]. Finland recognized the policy of free movement of EU citizens. This gave Finland builders from France, Estonia and Poland. Refugees came from Afghanistan and Iran; in 2014 - 500 people from Syria [4]. Rapid public discussion is caused regularly by Romanian gypsies arriving after 2010, mainly in summer.
Immigration from outside the European Union.
Concerned about the decline in the number of residents of the city of Heinola, the chairman of the city council Timo Ihmaki urged to attract workable immigrants to the city, which caused a sharp protest among a number of political figures [5].
On September 20, 2013, due to the situation in Syria, the Finnish government increased the general quota for the admission of refugees from 750 to 1050 people [6] and returned it to 750 in 2015 (350 refugees will arrive in Finland from Syria, 150 from Congo and 150 from Afghanistan, 100 places are reserved for emergency cases) [7]. The total costs for the reception of refugees will amount to 1.5 million euros by 2014, and in 2015-2017 - about 2.8 million euros [8]. Total costs for immigrants cost the country according to the party "True Finns" at 700 million euros [9]. In 2017, Minister of the Interior Paula Riscicco supported the initiative of her predecessor, Minister Paivi Rasanen, to consolidate the legislatively increased quota (1050 people) for Finland's annual reception of refugees [10].
According to a poll conducted in 2013 by the Helsingin Sanomat newspaper, 52% of Finns believe that the entry of immigrants into the country should be limited (in 2011, there were 46%) [11]. The international human rights organization Amnesty International criticizes Finland for the situation in which asylum-seekers are placed [12].
Finland suppresses attempts at illegal immigration to the country [13] (200-250 cases are identified every year [14]). In 2014, 3650 refugees arrived in the country, mainly from Iraq, Somalia, Russia and Afghanistan. In connection with the crisis in Ukraine, in 2014 about 200 Ukrainian citizens applied for political asylum [15]. The refugee reception centers are located in Helsinki (200 places in Punavuori and in Kallio, plus 250 in the private sector), as well as in Joutseno and Oulu [16]. During the five months of 2015, 1361 refugees entered the country, mainly from Somalia (446) and Iraq (454) [17].
In connection with the arrival of several thousand refugees in the country and the increase in rhetoric of hatred, a number of Finnish media concerns (MTV and Helsingin Sanomat) reported in September 2015 about the decision to restrict discussions on their websites. [18]
By the presence of foreign citizenship.
Russia - 28 200 Estonia - 25 400 Sweden - 8 600 Somalia - 5 500 China - 5 100 Thailand - 4 500 Iraq - 4000.
Total holders of foreign citizenship: 166,700 (2.9% of the population)
Russian 51 700 Estonian 25 100 English 12 100 Somali 11 700 Arabic 9 700 Kurdish 7100 Chinese 7110.
Total speakers of other languages (except Finnish and Swedish): 207,000 (3.9% of the population)
Former USSR 47,300 Sweden 31,000 Estonia 21,800 Russia 7,300 Somalia 7,100 China 6,600 Iraq 6,200.
Total born outside of Finland: 233,200 (4.4% of the population)
The number of immigrants to Finland in 2012 was 31,280 people, which is 1,800 more than in 2011, and more than ever in the history of independent Finland. At the same time, the number of emigrants from the country in 2012 also increased and amounted to 13 850 people. The net increase in immigration in 2012 was 17 430 people, which is 610 people more than a year earlier [20]. Also in 2012 there was an increase in labor immigration to Finland from the crisis countries of Europe - Spain (900 people), Italy (600 people) and Greece (300 people). It is expected that the number of migrants from Portugal will increase in the coming years [21]. According to a survey conducted in 2013 by Helsingin Sanomat, 52% of Finns believe that the arrival of immigrants to the country should be limited (in 2011, there were 46%) [11].


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