Geography, climate, nature.
Great Britain is an island on which England, Scotland and Wales are located.
The geographic location of Great Britain is marked by a zero meridian, which passes through the international time zone in Greenwich east of London, 50 �. north latitude in southeastern England and 60 � C. northern latitude in the Shetland Islands.
The area of Great Britain is about 240,842 sq. Km. km. Most of it is land, and the rest is rivers and lakes. The area of England is 129634 sq. Km. km., Wales - 20637 sq. km. km., Scotland - 77179 square kilometers. km. and Northern Ireland - 13438 square meters. km. Thus, England is much larger than other countries of the United Kingdom, and has the largest population. These factors explain the dominance of England in British history.
The main rivers of Great Britain are Clyde, Fort and Tweed in Scotland, Tyne, Trent, Humber, Severn and Thames in England and Wales, Bann and Logan in Northern Ireland.
The land of Great Britain can be divided into highlands and lowlands. The mountains and hills are mostly in the north and west. Most of the lowlands, not counting the Scottish lowlands and central parts of Northern Ireland, lie in the south and east of the country, where only a few places reach 300 meters above sea level.
The north and west consist of older and stronger rocks, created by ancient movements of the earth's crust, which are mostly unfit for farming. The south and east are younger and soft rocks formed by the process of weathering the mountains, which created fertile land and good conditions for cultivating the land. Most of the lowland lands, with the exception of cities and industrial zones, are used in agriculture. It basically consists of fields that are usually separated by fences or a hedge. Pastures in mountainous areas are separated by stone walls or peat bogs.
The lowest and highest marks.
the lowest mark: Fendland (Fenland) -4 m.
the highest mark: Mount Ben Nevis (Ben Nevis) 1,343 m.
coal, oil, natural gas, tin, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, limestone, gypsum, flint, lead.
land suitable for farming: 25%
other: 19% (for 1993)
Irrigated land: 1,080 square meters. km. (for 1993)
England (population - 48.2 million people) consists mainly of hilly or flat lowlands, diluted by several mountain areas in the north and southeast. But the low hills extend through most of the country, interspersed with lowland lands and plains.
The population is concentrated mainly around large cities: London and generally in the southeast of England, western Birmingham, Leeds, Bradford and Sheffield, northwestern industrial Liverpool and Manchester and northeastern Newcastle and Sunderland.
Wales (population - 2.9 million people) is a mountainous country with mountains and hills stretching across the territory, often ending in deep valleys created by riverbeds. These mountains gradually decline and move to the high hills in the east of England. The highest mountains of Wales are located in the north-west, where Mount Snowdon reaches 1085 m in height.
Lowland lands are limited to narrow coastal belts and river valleys in the south of Wales, where two thirds of the Welsh population live. In the past, the highlands of Wales hampered wars, agriculture and human settlement.
Scotland (population - 5.1 million people) can be divided into three main parts. The first part is the north-western and central mountains, together with a large number of islands on the western and northern coasts. These lands are poorly populated, accounting for half of the entire territory of Scotland. The second part is the central lowland lands, which constitute one-fifth of the entire Scottish territory and three-fourths of the total population of Scotland, the majority of industrial and commercial centers and cropland. The third part is the southern elevations, which include a number of hills extending to the border with England.
The highest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis (1,342 m), which is also the highest mountain in Great Britain.
Northern Ireland (population - 1.6 million people) is only 21 km from the Scottish coast, which caused the migration of peoples in the distant past. Since the division of Ireland in 1921 in the south and west it borders with the Republic of Ireland. In the north there is a mountainous coast, in the center, closer to the south, a fertile valley, and mountains in the west, northeast and southeast.
Most of the major cities, such as the capital Belfast, are located in the valleys. Belfast is located at the mouth of the River Lagan and is the largest city. But Northern Ireland is mainly an agrarian country, therefore the population lives mostly in rural areas.
The climate is mostly mild, but with a difference between cold and softness. Altitude above sea level affects the temperature, so it is colder in the hills and in the mountains than in the valleys. Thus, most of Scotland, as well as the hilly terrain of Wales and England are cooler in the summer and colder in winter than in the rest of England.
The temperature rarely reaches 32 � C in summer or falls below -10 � C in winter. However, there is a noticeable difference between north and south. The average monthly temperature in the Shetland Islands ranges from 3 � C in the winter months to 11 � C in the summer months. The corresponding temperatures for the southernmost point of the islands, Isle Of White - 5 � C and 16 � C. Of course, there are exceptions that go beyond these temperatures, throughout the year and in different parts of the country.
Maximum rainfall is observed in the north and west (more than 60 inches or 1600 mm), mainly in autumn and winter. The hills in the west protect the lowlands in the south and east of the country, so the annual rainfall is much lower (30 inches or 800 mm), with increasing intensity in the summer. The total average precipitation is more than 40 inches (1100 mm) per year. The period from March to June is the driest, from September to January - the rainiest. Droughts are not frequent, but they do happen, which creates problems for farmers and residents of arid areas.
Low-pressure fronts can cause very different weather. Usually they pass over the northern part of the British Isles, and since the south-west winds blow almost all year round, the result is a windy, rainy and unstable weather. But high-pressure areas that also look at the islands for a year are relatively stable and move slower than low-pressure areas, causing the British to enjoy warm and dry weather with a weak wind.
The amount of sunlight in the UK varies by region. It decreases from the south to the north, from the sea shore into the land and depending on the height. In the summer, the sun shines from five hours a day in northern Scotland to eight on the south coast of England, and in winter from one hour at the northernmost point to two in the southernmost.
These data show that the UK is not the most sunny country, although there are periods of rest from the usual grayness and nebula. Frequent clouds over the British Isles are complicated by weather phenomena, so that even on a hot summer day the sun can hardly be seen through the clouds, which creates a very moist, sticky atmosphere.
With the exception of northern Scotland, the hilly terrain of the north and west, swamps, marshes and edges of the coast, the natural vegetation of the British Isles are deciduous forests, mostly oak forests. Because of human activity, rare forests and zones of wild or semi-wild vegetation remained on them, whimsically scattered among the flat cultivated fields. Few of these beautiful fields and meadows, no matter how wild they may seem, can claim the title of truly natural plant worlds: almost all were pastures or cut down forests.
Glades and wastelands occupy about a quarter of the entire territory of the United Kingdom. On them grows true arctic vegetation, as well as heather, bilberry, moss, and, of course, grass. Such vegetation can also be found on the highlands of eastern Northern Ireland, with a large proportion of moss. In lowlands, where the earth contains a lot of sand, the dominant plant is the heather ordinary, whose dark purple color adds color to the autumn countryside, and sometimes blueberries. A strip of land bordering the sea has avoided the attention of people and domestic animals, so there often come zones of marine vegetation in its natural state.
Most of the previously widespread animals, such as wild boars, reindeer and wolves, have died out, but the red deer still live in the Scottish mountains, and roe deer are in the forests of Scotland and southern England. Carnivores (raccoons, foxes, otters, ermines and weasels) survive where the least number of people, rodents (rats, mice, squirrels) and insectivores (hedgehogs, moles, shrews) are also widespread. Rabbits are found everywhere, and their number increases. Another representative of this family, the hare, lives both in the mountains and on the plain. Amphibians are represented by three species of newts and five species of frogs and toads, while reptiles are represented by three species of snakes, of which only the viper is poisonous, and three species of lizards. In Northern Ireland there are no snakes.
In the UK, you can find about 200 bird species, of which more than half come from other countries. Many species are able to adapt to changing conditions, and it is believed that there are more birds in suburban gardens than in any forest. They hunt mainly on wild pigeons, pheasants and partridges. The most numerous species are the sparrow, rook, finch.
The shores of the North Sea for centuries have been the largest fisheries in Europe. The main types of commercial fish are cod, mackerel, haddock, merlang, herring and flounder.
Geography, climate, nature.