Gagauz in Bulgaria.
The Gagauz (gagauzlar, Gagauzite) is the native people of Bulgaria. Their villages are concentrated in northeastern Bulgaria (Dobrudja). Orthodoxy is the traditional religion of the Gagauz.
The Gagauzes first meet on the western coast of the Black Sea (now the eastern part of Bulgaria). Their villages are in the area between Cape Emona and the city of Constanta in Romania. In Bulgaria, the Gagauz villages are located right up to the towns of Provadia and Shumen. The main towns of the Gagauz were Varna, Kavarna, Dobrich, Balchik, Shumen and Provadia. In general, about 70 villages and towns are considered Gagauzian.
On the territory of Bulgaria, the Gagauzians were divided into two groups: Hasil (Aslah) Gagauzlar, that is, "real Gagauz", which were also known as "Greek" (or "coastal") Gagauz, and Bulgar Gagauzlary, "Bulgarian" Gagauz. The "Bulgarian" Gagauzians considered themselves Bulgarians, did not consider it shameful to marry the Bulgarians and in their everyday life differed little from the Bulgarians. The "real" Gagauz called themselves only Gagauzians, they did not mix with the Bulgarians and kept on the side of the Greeks. In the first quarter of the 19th century, Gagauzes of both groups moved to Bessarabia. This division was based mainly on belonging to the Greek or Bulgarian church. The intense competition between these churches and the disposition of the Bulgarians to free themselves from dependence on the Patriarchate of Constantinople led to frequent conflicts between the Greek and Bulgarian populations. Most Gagauz villages supporting the Greek church did not agree to transfer to the Bulgarian Exarchate.
From 1812 to 1830. because of the consequences of the Russian-Turkish wars, some Gagauz emigrated to Bessarabia. According to statistical data on the population of the Bessarabian colonies from 1870, the number of Gagauzes of Bessarabia for that period was not more than 30 thousand people. Hence we can assume that for half a century before, no more than 10 thousand people moved to Bessarabia. They are located in Bender and Izmail tsynutah.
In the years 1870-78, after the Russian-Turkish war, in connection with the capture of Adrianople (Bulgar Odrin, Edirne tour) by Russian troops, the Gagauzians, supporting the Greek church, unwilling to move to the Bulgarian church, moved south and settled in the provinces of Khavs, Babaeski and Kirklareli (Eastern Thrace). It is believed that during this period of time about 6,000 Gagauzes moved to new lands. In addition, about 1,000 Gagauzes settled in the villages of the kazy Yambol of Bulgaria. Then, during the exchange of population between Turkey and Greece under the Lausanne Peace Treaty of 1923, from Eastern Thrace, they were relocated to the region of the Greek noma Evros (Western Thrace).
Currently, due to assimilation (Bulgarianization), most of the Gagauz of Bulgaria believe that they are a small ethnogroup of Bulgarians and, when polling, they call themselves Bulgarians. Therefore, it is impossible to determine the exact size of the Gagauz population of Bulgaria.
According to the 1992 census, the Gagauzes lived in all regions of Bulgaria, but most of them live in the Varna region. Today Gagauz settlements are compactly concentrated in north-eastern Bulgaria, within their historical borders. Around the cities of the Black Sea coast of Varna, Kavarna and Balchik, in Dobruja from Dobrich to Silistra, as well as Shumen, Novi Pazar and Provadia.
After the liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire, one of the first who began to register settlements with the Gagauz population was the famous Czech historian Konstantin Irechek. After studies of Gagauz villages in northeastern Bulgaria, a Czech scientist described their location in the following directions:
Much less Gagauz, displaced during the Balkan wars (mainly from Eastern Thrace), now lives in Burgas, Yambol, Haskovo and Stara Zagora. It is important to note the socio-economic character of the resettlement of the Gagauzians. Most of them live in cities, a third - in the capital of the country of Sofia.
Gabriel Zanetov (1863-1934) is a Bulgarian lawyer. Ivan Dobrev (1922 -) - Bulgarian military, admiral, deputy. Kiryak Tsonev is a prominent Bulgarian scientist and diplomat, arabist.
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[www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCgdNJGctVs Gagauz of Bulgaria visiting Gagauzia] [www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCvKwnql-u0 Song of the Gagauz folklore of Bulgaria - Gaydalar chalar] [www.altay-fito.ru/ node / 956 Calendar holidays of the Gagauz of Bulgaria]
A fragment that characterizes Gagauz in Bulgaria.
The old count pretended to be angry. - Yes, you talk, you try!
And the Count turned to the cook, who, with a clever and respectable face, looked with tenderness and affection at his father and son.
- What is the youth, a, Feoktist? "He said," the old men laugh at our brother.
"Well, your Excellency, they would only eat well, but how to assemble and then serve, it's not their business."
"Well, yes," cried the Count, and grasping his son in both hands, shouted: "So you fell for me!" You take the sleigh now, and go to Bezukhov, and say that the Count, Ilya Andreitch, was sent to ask you strawberries and fresh pineapples. No one else will not get it. It's not like that, so you go in, tell the princesses, and from there, here's what, you go to Razguliay - Ipatka the coachman knows - find you Ilyushka the gypsy, that's what Count Orlov then danced in a white Cossack woman, and you brought him here, to me.
"And bring him here with the gipsies?" Asked Nikolai, laughing. - Oh well!�
At that time Anna Mikhaylovna entered the room inaudible steps, with a businesslike, anxious and, together, Christianly meek manner, who never left her. Despite the fact that every day Anna Mikhailovna found the count in a dressing gown, every time he was embarrassed at her and asked for an apology for his suit.
"It's all right, count, darling," she said, gently closing her eyes. "And I'll go to Bezukhom," she said. "Pierre has arrived, and now we'll get everything, Count, from his greenhouses." I needed to see him. He sent me a letter from Boris. Thank God, Borya is now at headquarters.
The Count was glad that Anna Mikhailovna took one part of his errands, and ordered her to lay a small carriage.
"You tell Bezukhov that he should come." I'll write it down. What is he with his wife? - he asked.
Anna Mikhaylovna started her eyes, and she expressed deep sorrow ...
"Ah, my friend, he is very unhappy," she said. "If it's true that we heard, it's terrible." And did we think when we were so happy about his happiness? And such a high, heavenly soul, this young Bezukhov! Yes, I sincerely regret it and will try to give him consolation, which will depend on me.
"What's wrong with that?" Asked both Rostov, the eldest and the youngest.
Anna Mikhaylovna took a deep breath. "Dolokhov, Marya Ivanovna's son," she said in a mysterious whisper, "they say that he completely compromised her." He brought him out, invited him to his house in Petersburg, and, behold ... She came here, and you should rip her head behind her, "said Anna Mikhailovna, wanting to express her sympathy to Pierre, but in involuntary intonations and half-smile, show her sympathy to her head, like she she called Dolokhov. - They say that Pierre himself was completely killed by his grief.
- Well, all the same, tell him to come to the club - everything will dissipate. Feast of a mountain will be.
The next day, on the 3rd of March, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 250 members of the English Club and 50 guests were waiting for dinner by an expensive guest and hero of the Austrian campaign, Prince Bagration. At first, upon receiving news of the Austerlitz battle, Moscow was bewildered. At that time the Russians were so accustomed to victories that, having received the news of the defeat, some simply did not believe, others sought explanations for such a strange event in some unusual reasons. In the English club, where everything was collected that was noble, having the right information and weight, in December, when the news began to come, nothing was said about the war and the last battle, as if all agreed to remain silent about it. People who gave direction to the conversation, such as: Count Rostopchin, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky Dolgoruky, Valuev, gr. Markov, Prince. Vyazemsky, did not show up at the club, but gathered at home, in their intimate circles, and the Muscovites, who spoke from other people's voices (to which Ilya Andreyevich belonged), remained for a short time without a definite judgment on the matter of war and without leaders. Muscovites felt that something was wrong and that it was difficult to discuss these bad news, and therefore it is better to remain silent. But after a few minutes, as the jurors leave the meeting room, the aces that gave their opinion in the club appeared, and everything began to speak clearly and definitely. The reasons were found for that incredible, unheard of and impossible event that the Russians were beaten, and everything became clear, and the same thing was being said in all corners of Moscow. These reasons were: the betrayal of the Austrians, the bad food of the troops, the treachery of the Poles of Przeszyszewski and the Frenchman Langeron, the inability of Kutuzov, and (quietly said) the youth and inexperience of the sovereign, who was entrusted to the bad and insignificant people. But the troops, the Russian troops, said everything, were extraordinary and did wonders of courage. Soldiers, officers, generals were heroes. But the hero of the heroes was Prince Bagration, famous for his Shengraben affair and retreat from Austerlitz, where he alone held his column unbroken and all day repulsed twice the strongest enemy. The fact that Bagration was chosen as a hero in Moscow was promoted by the fact that he had no ties in Moscow, and was a stranger. In the person of him the proper honor was given to a combat soldier, simple, without connections and intrigues, a Russian soldier still bound by the memories of the Italian campaign with Suvorov's name. In addition, in giving him such honors, it was best to show disapproval and disapproval of Kutuzov.
"If there was not Bagration, il faudrait l'inventer, [you should invent it.]" Said the joker Shinshin, parodying Voltaire's words. About Kutuzov no one spoke, and some whispered him, calling the court a turntable and an old satyr. Throughout Moscow, the words of Prince Dolgorukov repeated: "molding, shaping and clinging", consoled in our defeat by the memory of the previous victories, and Rostopchin's words repeated that French soldiers should be raised to battle with lofty phrases that they must logically argue with the Germans, convincing them , that it is more dangerous to run than to go forward; but that the Russian soldiers only need to be kept and ask: quiet! From all sides, new and new stories were heard about individual examples of the courage shown by our soldiers and officers at Austerlitz. He saved the banner, he killed 5 Th French, that one charged 5 Th guns. They also talked about Berg, who did not know him, that he, wounded in his right hand, took the sword in his left and went ahead. About Bolkonsky did not say anything, and only those who knew him were sorry that he died early, leaving his pregnant wife and eccentric father.
Gagauz in Bulgaria.