Demographic overview of Europe.
In foreign Europe since the Renaissance there has been a fairly steady growth of the population. However, there were periods when in many countries and regions because of epidemics, hunger and wars, the population decreased. From the plague of the 14th century, 35% of the population of Europe died. One of the reasons for the periodic population decline was emigration. During the Great geographical discoveries, emigrants from Spain, Portugal, England, Holland, France moved to overseas countries.
But despite these unfavorable factors, the population of the countries of Europe Abroad grew at an accelerated pace in the 16th and 18th centuries and reached 100 million by the year 1700, and by 150-160 million by 1800. In general and in the 19th century, with epidemics). The exception was Ireland, where a severe famine and typhus epidemic led to a reduction in the population. The total population of the Overseas Europe has almost doubled in a century and reached about 300 million by the beginning of the 20th century. In the 20th century, the process of natural population growth in most of Europe gradually declined. In the 50-60 years of the 20th century. the death rate has stabilized in different countries at the level of 8-12 ppm and has not changed significantly in the future. At the same time, there was a decrease in the birth rate. This was due to growing urbanization, raising the level of education and later marriage, and involving women in social production.
Very great damage to the population of Europe was caused by world wars. In the first of them, more than 7 million people died in foreign countries. But the total losses are estimated at more than 25 million (hunger, flu "Spaniard"). During the Second World War, about 17 million people were killed, but the total losses are estimated at tens of millions.
After the Second World War, there was a spike in the birth rate (the so-called "bebi-boom"), but soon the boom passed and the birth rate again stabilized.
Currently, Overseas Europe has the lowest population growth rates in the world: its population increases by 0.5% per year. And if in South and Eastern Europe rates exceed the average, in the North and West Europe the population increases only by 0.2-0.3% per year (and that at the expense of immigration). In a number of developed countries, natural population growth (Germany, Austria, England, etc.) is negative.
All these processes have led to the fact that developed states are forced to stimulate the birth rate. The first state in Europe to adopt a policy of encouraging fertility was France. In 1920, due to the threat of depopulation, abortion and the sale of contraceptives were banned here. In 1923, Mussolini introduced a tax in Italy "for childlessness." After the Second World War, children's allowances were introduced. The same measures were adopted in the Nordic countries. Mothers are supported here, abortions are allowed only for medical and certain social indications (rape). Among the countries of the whole of Europe Abroad, Albania stands out for a high birth rate (more than 30 ppm). This is due to Muslim traditions (early marriage, many children).
The average life expectancy in most countries exceeds 70 years. Are allocated:
The combination of low fertility and long life span led to the aging of the European population. In Europe, a thousand people aged 15-59 years account for more than 280 people 60 and older. At the same time, there is a very small proportion of children: for a thousand people between the ages of 15 and 59, there are only about 400 children under the age of 15 years. Almost all European countries have more women than men, especially among the elderly.
Economically active population is about 44%. The bulk of the population is employed in industry and construction. The share of these branches reached 35-50% in different countries. In agriculture, forestry, and fisheries in the most developed countries, no more than 10-12% of the economically active population is employed. A very low share of the agricultural population has:
Sweden and Germany - less than 6%,
Agriculture plays an important role in Southern Europe, where it employs 15% (Italy) to 40% (Greece) of workers.
Recently, the number of employed in the service sector has been relatively increasing.
The largest social category of the population of Europe is a huge army of hired labor - workers and employees. Their share in the economically active population is on average about 80%, and in some countries (Great Britain) exceeds 90%. Only in Southern Europe, the proportion of hired labor has not yet reached 70%, and in Greece it is only 40%.
Strongly in recent years, the number of farmers and small urban bourgeoisie (owners of small enterprises, mainly in the sphere of trade and household services) has decreased. The share of the latter is not more than 4-6% of the economically active population.
Demographic overview of Europe.