Chinese grooms are not interested in Kazakhs & # 8212; expert.
The large-scale migration of ethnic Chinese to Kazakhstan & # 8212; it is a myth.
This conclusion was made on the basis of statistical data by the head of the Center for Chinese and Asian Studies in Astana, Doctor of Political Sciences Svetlana Kozhirova in an interview with the Information and Analytical Center of Moscow State University.
& # 8212; Svetlana Basievna, in Kazakhstan there are serious concerns about the influx of Chinese labor migrants. How are things in this area in reality?
& # 8212; The fact is that when we operate with statistical data, Chinese citizenship is always clearly indicated in them. But.
under PRC citizens public opinion in Kazakhstan for some reason represents exclusively ethnic Chinese.
Although there is a gradation in statistics, what is the percentage ratio of Kazakhs, Uighurs, Dungans, Chinese proper, etc. We see this indicator well, then Kazakhs mainly go to us from Kazakhstan, they remain in Kazakhstan, getting passports of the citizens of Kazakhstan . A very small percentage of this number refers to Uighurs.
The number of Han is at a level below the statistical error.
For example: according to the Office of the Migration Police, in the period from 1992 to 2007 citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan received 21 thousand 012 people, of which Kazakhs - 20 thousand 968, that is, an absolute majority, Uighurs - 35, Chinese - 5 human. That is, only 5 Chinese in 15 years.
If the Chinese are eager for something in Kazakhstan, it is to get a commercial visa, which allows multiple entry into the country, and Kazakhs and Uighurs - a residence permit.
If you look more recent statistics, it is even more categorical and suggests that.
the Chinese have no interest in Kazakhstani citizenship.
So, in 2013 for permanent residence in Kazakhstan there were 2 thousand 931 oralmans (ethnic Kazakh-repatriate) from China. At the same time 6 thousand 160 oralmans received citizenship. In 2014, the citizenship of Kazakhstan received 2 thousand 324 people in this status. In 2015 there are 320 oralmans.
In just three years, 8,000 804 oralmans from the PRC arrived in Kazakhstan and received the status of a citizen. Do you know how many Chinese people have received a passport of a citizen of Kazakhstan? No one! During this period only two people - not oralmans, became citizens of Kazakhstan, having moved from China. They were two dungan. That's the whole flow of Chinese to Kazakhstan, which in fact there.
In addition, when I happened to question the Chinese who arrived temporarily in Kazakhstan for work, many - from 30 to 65% of respondents - said that their financial situation in China was "very good" or "good." Only a few, about 12%, noted that their living conditions were unsatisfactory. The column "very poor living conditions" was not noted by any questioned.
So we can say with certainty that from China there is an influx of exclusively Kazakh repatriates.
The Chinese, who come to us on a labor visa, can be divided into several categories.
The first is employees of banks, commercial companies, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, etc. The second group consists of traders or workers at construction sites. But none of them in the survey does not indicate the intention to stay. Basically, the Chinese say that they came to Kazakhstan for work.
There is also a third category - those who came to Kazakhstan in order to then leave for Russia, as a more attractive country in terms of market development. They used a temporary stay in Kazakhstan as a springboard for further relocation to Russia.
Longer remained only those who had a well-developed business in Kazakhstan. But among them I did not meet people who persistently sought to obtain Kazakhstani citizenship.
Thus, everything that is relayed today about Chinese migration in the Kazakhstani mass media is mostly a product of distorted ideas.
& # 8212; By the way, in Russia, too, there are certain myths about the dominance of the Chinese. For example, in the past 2016 in the territory of Siberia and the Far East of Russia there were 400 thousand Chinese, while the Uzbeks lived there 1 million 800 thousand, and Tajiks - 1.5 million. Thus, the myth of Chinese migration exists everywhere.
& # 8212; At one time in the expert community there was an opinion that the Chinese migration and Chinese trade migration is not just a chaotic process, it is allegedly controlled by the PRC government and has the ultimate goal - for example, the creation of Chinese compatriots. At some point, these ideas have penetrated and are rooted in the expert environment, they continue to live in it and still. Many experts operate them. However, no one can give any supporting documents that such a decision was made and maintained at the highest level.
These are exclusively conspiracy theories, based on the aberration of psychological perception. The important point is that.
Chinese compatriots, the Chinese diaspora never integrates into the national society in which it lives. This gives rise to fear and fear.
After all, the Chinese live in their neighborhoods, "Chinatowns", provoking phobias among different people, most of whom are poorly versed in the nuances of Chinese culture.
One of the conclusions of my research is that Chinese migrants are extremely slowly assimilated by the local population. Mixed marriages for them are practically excluded. They are mainly focused not on subsidence in Kazakhstan, but on entrepreneurial activity, forced capital accumulation, market retention or the subsequent relocation to Russia and Europe.
& # 8212; It is curious, but in Kazakhstan there is an opinion that the Chinese go to the republic to marry with local citizens or citizens.
S. Kozhirova. Source & # 8212; The Russian Planet.
& # 8212; I do not know how the situation has changed in recent years. But ten years ago I wrote applications to all registrars of the country, so that I was told how many marriages were concluded between ethnic Chinese and Kazakhstanis. Then, over a five-year period, only three such marriages could be counted. And I do not think that the situation has changed dramatically. After all, if there were a lot more of these marriages, they would strike the eye. But we practically do not observe this phenomenon.
No matter how insulting this may sound, but as far as I can tell,
the Chinese themselves do not burn with desire and do not seek to marry ethnic Kazakhs.
The questionnaire demonstrated that they are not enthusiastic about this issue. More willingly, the Chinese react to the possibility of marriage with ethnic Russians.
& # 8212; Maybe they do not aspire to mixed marriages, because they fear a negative social reaction ...
& # 8212; No, that's not the point. It's just that they have their own interests and tastes that work on a personal-psychological level. Of course, there are rare cases when there really is a love that turns into a marriage relationship between the Chinese and the Kazakhs. But to say that there are no brides in China and Chinese grooms are asleep and see how to come to Kazakhstan and take away Kazakhs from here is stupid.
& # 8212; In your work "Chinese Migration and Kazakhstan" you put forward the thesis that in economically developed countries there are practically no Chinese "trade minorities" or "chinatowns" (the exception is the United Kingdom and the United States). The effective limitation of Chinese immigration is the consolidation of the nation on the basis of a national idea or religion. Thus, in the countries of South-East Asia, Islam is a powerful constraint on expanding the economic and cultural-civilizational expansion of the Chinese diaspora. It turns out that the Islamic factor can restrain Chinese cultural expansion in Kazakhstan?
& # 8212; This idea is considered by researchers from the 70-80s of the last century. Especially those who deal with the history and modern situation of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.
Many of these experts believe that China failed to absorb Xinjiang completely and to assimilate the Uighurs because of the Islamic component, which has become an important element in opposing the penetration of Chinese culture and Chinese absorption. This idea is rather controversial and the expert community does not always support it.
But I agree with that.
The Islamic factor is a powerful anchor that has preserved the identity of the Uighurs.
Thanks to him, this rebellious province has not yet been "digested" by China. And note that all the research was done even when we did not know about Salafism or other currents. That is, a certain barrier to the penetration of Chinese culture is placed by traditional Islam, and not by its radical movements, which became known much later.
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Chinese grooms are not interested in Kazakhs & # 8212; expert.